2020精品推荐--天外来福

2020-01-03 18:45:13 来源: 未知

天外来福

 

陨石在高空飞行时,表面温度达到几千度。在这样的高温下,陨石表面融化成了液体。后来由于低层比较浓密大气的阻挡,他的速度越来越慢,融化的表面冷却下来,形成一层薄壳叫“熔壳”。熔壳很薄,一般在1毫米左右,颜色是黑色或棕色的。在熔壳冷却的过程中,空气流动在陨石表面吹过的痕迹也保留下来,叫“气印”。气印的样子很像在面团上按出的手指印。 熔壳和气印是陨石表面的主要特征。若是你看到的石头或铁块的表面有这样一层熔壳或气印,那你可以立刻断定,这是一块陨石。但是落下来的年代较长的一些陨石,由于长期的风吹、日晒和雨淋,熔壳脱落了,气印也就不易辨认出来了,但是那也不要紧,还有别的办法来辨认。

When the meteorite flies at high altitude, the surface temperature reaches several thousand degrees. At this high temperature, the surface of the meteorite melts into a liquid. Later, due to the obstruction of dense atmosphere in the lower layer, his speed became slower and slower. The melting surface cooled down and formed a thin shell called "melting shell". The shell is very thin, usually about 1 mm, and the color is black or brown. In the process of melting shell cooling, the trace of air flowing on the surface of meteorite remains, which is called "air stamp". It looks like a finger print on a dough. The main characteristics of meteorite surface are melting shell and gas seal. If you see such a layer of molten shell or gas mark on the surface of stone or iron, you can immediately conclude that it is a meteorite. But for some meteorites that have fallen for a long time, due to the long-term wind, sun and rain, the melting shell has fallen off, and the air mark is not easy to identify, but that doesn't matter. There are other ways to identify them.

 

石陨石的样子很像地球上的岩石,用手掂量一下,会觉得它比同体积的岩石重些。石陨石一般都含百分之几的铁,有磁性,用吸铁石试一试便会感到。另外,仔细看看石陨石的断面,会发现有不少的小的球粒。球粒一般有1毫米左右,也有大到2~3毫米以上的。90%以上的石陨石都有这样的球粒,它们是陨石生成的时候产生的。是辨认石陨石的一个重要标记。铁陨石的主要成分是铁和镍。其中,铁占90%左右,镍的含量一般在4~8%之间,地球上的自然铁中镍的含量一般不会有这么多。

The appearance of the meteorite is very similar to the rocks on the earth. If you weigh it by hand, you will feel that it is heavier than the rocks of the same volume. Meteorites generally contain a few percent of iron. They are magnetic. You can feel it when you try them with a magnet. In addition, if you look at the section of the meteorite carefully, you will find that there are many small chondrites. Generally, the size of the ball is about 1 mm, but also 2-3 mm or more. More than 90% of meteorites have such chondrites, which are produced when meteorites are formed. It is an important mark to identify meteorites. The main components of iron meteorites are iron and nickel. Among them, iron accounts for about 90%, and the content of nickel is generally between 4% and 8%. The content of nickel in the natural iron on the earth is generally not so much.

 

 

 

在铁陨石上切割一个断面,磨光后,用5%的硝酸酒精侵蚀,光亮的端面会呈现出特殊的条纹,像花格子一样。这是因为铁陨石本身成分分布不均匀,有的地方含镍量多些,有的地方少些,含镍量多的部分,化学性质稳定,不易被酸腐蚀,而含镍量少的部分受酸腐蚀后,变得粗糙无光泽,这样就由这些亮的和暗的部分组成了花格子一样的条纹。除了极少数含镍量特多的陨石外,都会出现这些条纹。这是辨认铁陨石的一个主要方法。 石铁陨石极少见,由石和铁组成,它含有大致相等的铁和硅酸盐矿物。

Cut a section on the iron meteorite, polish it, and erode it with 5% nitric acid alcohol. The bright end surface will show special stripes, like a lattice. This is because the composition of the iron meteorite itself is not evenly distributed. Some places contain more nickel, some places are less, and some parts contain more nickel. Their chemical properties are stable and they are not easy to be corroded by acid. However, the parts containing less nickel become rough and lusterless after being corroded by acid. Thus, these bright and dark parts form the same stripes as lattice. Except for a few meteorites with high nickel content, these streaks will appear. This is a major method to identify iron meteorites. Ferrites are very rare, consisting of stone and iron. They contain about the same iron and silicate minerals.

 

在3类陨石中,石陨石最多,1976年3月8日,在我国吉林省吉林地区降落的一场大规模的陨石雨,便是一次石质的球粒陨石雨。这次陨石雨散落的范围达四、五百平方公里,搜集到的陨石有一百多块,总重量在2600公斤以上。其中,最大的一号陨石重1770公斤,是目前世界上搜索到的最重的一块石陨石。第二位的是美国诺顿石陨石,重1079公斤。 铁陨石比石陨石要重的多,最重的一块在非洲纳米比亚,名字叫戈巴陨石,有60吨重。在我国新疆的一块大陨铁重30吨,是世界的第三位。

On March 8, 1976, a large-scale meteorite rain fell in Jilin area of Jilin Province, China, which is a stone chondrite rain. The meteorite rain covers an area of four or five hundred square kilometers. More than one hundred meteorites have been collected, with a total weight of more than 2600 kg. Among them, the largest one weighs 1770 kg, which is the heaviest one in the world. The second is Norton meteorite, weighing 1079 kg. Iron meteorite is much heavier than stone meteorite. The heaviest one is in Namibia, Africa. Its name is Goba meteorite. It weighs 60 tons. A large meteorite iron in Xinjiang weighs 30 tons, which is the third largest in the world.

 

大多数流星体在进入大气层时都会瓦解,估计每年仍有500颗左右,小至弹珠大至篮球的陨石落在地面上;但是,通常每年只有5至10颗流星会被发现坠落,并被科学家得知和寻获。少数的陨石够大,可以创造出巨大的撞击坑;相对的,其它的陨石则因为不够大,坠地时都已经达到终端速度,最多只能创造出一个小坑洞。

Most meteoroids will disintegrate when they enter the atmosphere. It is estimated that about 500 meteorites, ranging from marbles to basketball, still fall on the ground every year. However, only 5 to 10 meteors are usually found to fall every year, which are known and found by scientists. A few meteorites are big enough to create huge impact craters; in contrast, other meteorites, because they are not big enough, have reached the terminal speed at the time of falling, and can only create a small crater at most.

 

 

大陨石击中地面时的速度可能仍接近它们的第二宇宙速度,在超高速的撞击下会留下一个撞击坑。坑洞的类型取决于陨石的大小、组成、破碎的程度、和进入的撞击角度。这种碰撞的力量有可能造成广泛的破坏。在地球上最常见到的超高速撞击,是由最容易穿越大气层的铁陨石造成的。

Large meteorites may still hit the ground at a speed close to their second cosmic speed, leaving a crater under hypervelocity impact. The type of crater depends on the size, composition, degree of fragmentation, and impact angle of the meteorite. The force of this collision has the potential to cause extensive damage. The most common hypervelocity impact on earth is caused by iron meteorites, which are the most likely to cross the atmosphere.

 

铁陨石造成的撞击坑例子如,巴林杰陨石坑、奥德萨陨石坑、瓦巴坑和狼溪陨石坑,在这些陨石坑都发现相关联的铁陨石。相较之下,够大的石质流星体或像彗星这样的冰雪球或小行星,即使重量达到数百万公吨,在进入和通过大气层时,依然会被破坏而不会留下撞击坑。虽然这种瓦解的事件很罕见, 它们会造成可以引起重视的振荡,著名的通古斯事件可能就是这种事件。非常大的石质流星体,数百米直径或这更大,质量达到千万公吨或更重,可以墬落到地球表面,并撞击出大撞击坑,但是这是非常罕见的。这种撞击通常都办围着巨大的能量,因此撞击体会完全被摧毁,而没有陨石能残留下来(第一个被发现与石陨石有关联的大陨石坑,是2006年五月提出报告的南非摩洛衮陨石坑)。

Large meteorites may still hit the ground at a speed close to their second cosmic speed, leaving a crater under hypervelocity impact. The type of crater depends on the size, composition, degree of fragmentation, and impact angle of the meteorite. The force of this collision has the potential to cause extensive damage. The most common hypervelocity impact on earth is caused by iron meteorites, which are the most likely to cross the atmosphere.

 

几种现象是太小而无法造成超高速撞击坑的墬落陨石目击者需要提出的证据。流星体穿过大气层时的火球可以非常明亮,甚至足以媲美太阳的强度,然而大多数都比较黯淡,甚至在白天而不会被注意到。有许多的颜色曾被报告过,包括黄色、绿色和红色。随着物件的碎裂,会有闪光和爆发。在陨石坠落时经常会听到主要碎裂事件引起的激波产生爆炸、碎裂或隆隆的声爆。在广大的范围内都可以听到这种声音,半径可以达到数百公里或更大;有时可以听到口哨声或嘶嘶声,但还缺乏理解。在火球经过之后,经常会看见烟尘的尾巴在大气层内残留好几分钟。

Several phenomena are too small to cause the hypervelocity impact crater to fall down the meteorite witnesses need to provide evidence. The fireball of meteoroids passing through the atmosphere can be very bright, even as strong as the sun, but most of them are dim, even in the daytime without being noticed. Many colors have been reported, including yellow, green and red. As the object disintegrates, there will be flashes and explosions. When a meteorite falls, it is often heard that the shock wave caused by the main fragmentation event produces an explosion, fragmentation or rumbling sound explosion. This kind of sound can be heard in a wide range, with a radius of hundreds of kilometers or more; sometimes whistles or hisses can be heard, but there is still a lack of understanding. After a fireball passes, the tail of soot is often seen to remain in the atmosphere for several minutes.

 

流星体在进入大气层的过程中会被加热,它的表面会融化和经历烧蚀的体验。在这个过程中,它们可以被雕塑成各种不同的形状,在表面出现和留下被称为气印的浅层指纹状凹陷。如果流星体保持固定的方位,没有翻滚的前进一段时间,它可能会形成一个锥形的鼻锥或是热遮罩的形状。

Meteoroids are heated as they enter the atmosphere, and their surfaces melt and experience ablation. In this process, they can be sculpted into a variety of different shapes, appearing on the surface and leaving a shallow fingerprint like depression known as an airprint. If the meteoroid maintains a fixed orientation and does not roll forward for a period of time, it may form a conical nose cone or a heat mask shape.

 

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万庆品牌简介

 

广东万庆拍卖有限公司经营范围是:艺术品、收藏品拍卖;艺术品代理;一般物品拍卖;贸易代理;首饰、工艺品及收藏品批发(不含象牙制品);珠宝首饰零售;工艺美术品及收藏品零售(不含象牙制品);其他日用品零售;社会经济咨询(不含教育咨询服务)。(依法须经批准的项目,经相关部门批准后方可开展经营活动。)(依法须经批准的项目,经相关部门批准后方可开展经营活动)。广东省范围内,当前企业的注册资本属于较高。各项资质齐全。

 

The business scope of Guangdong Wanqing Auction Co., Ltd. is: auction of artworks and collectibles; artworks agency; auction of general articles; trade agency; wholesale of jewelry, artworks and collectibles (excluding ivory products); retail of jewelry; retail of Arts and crafts and collectibles (excluding ivory products); retail of other daily necessities; social and economic consultation (excluding educational consultation service) 。 (for projects subject to approval according to law, business activities can only be carried out with the approval of relevant departments.) (for projects subject to approval according to law, business activities can be carried out only after approval of relevant departments). In Guangdong Province, the current registered capital of enterprises is relatively high. All qualifications are complete.

 

 

此公司开业以来,多次举办大型艺术展会及拍卖会,成交率处在逐年上升趋势,每月一场小型的拍卖会,更是为客户的物品流通提供更好的平台。小型拍卖会的标准是起拍价多为无底价,成交价由市场来决定价值。公司所举办的小型拍卖会,不需要图录费用及任何宣传费用,仅仅在成交后付佣金即可。大型拍卖会的参与需要经过严格的审核,方可参与。

 

Since its opening, the company has held many large-scale art exhibitions and auctions, with the turnover rate rising year by year. A small auction every month provides a better platform for the circulation of customers' goods. The standard of small-scale auction is that the starting price is mostly the bottomless price, and the transaction price is determined by the market. The small-scale auction held by the company does not need any catalogue fee and any publicity fee, and only pays commission after the transaction. Participation in large-scale auctions requires strict examination and approval before participation.

 

万庆集团理念

核心价值观:诚信为本  真不二价

服务理念:服务好每一位顾客

经营理念:诚信赢得未来

管理理念:规矩方圆   厚德载物

 

Wanqing group concept

Core values: Based on honesty

Service concept: serve every customer well

Business philosophy: integrity wins the future

Management concept: rules and regulations

 

 

广东万庆集团不仅在中国古代书画、近现代书画、古董珍玩、中国当代艺术、当代水墨、古籍文献、当代工艺品等艺术品拍卖领域拥有全球推广的雄厚实力,在珠宝钟表、天珠及藏传佛教艺术、红酒白酒、科技古董等拍卖领域也完成了全面布局。是一家有着雄厚的资金、高端的客户资源、业务范围广的企业。

 

Guangdong Wanqing group not only has a strong global promotion strength in the auction fields of ancient Chinese calligraphy and painting, modern Chinese calligraphy and painting, antique treasures, Chinese contemporary art, contemporary ink, ancient books and documents, contemporary crafts and other art works, but also has completed a comprehensive layout in the auction fields of jewelry, watches, pearls and Tibetan Buddhist art, wine and liquor, technology and antiques. It is an enterprise with abundant capital, high-end customer resources and wide business scope.

 

征集范围:

瓷器:各代官窑器及名窑精品,以宋五大名窑及元明清官窑器为佳;
玉器:高古玉、明清玉、翡翠等;
字画:古代书画、近现代名家书画、名家油画、古籍善本等;
杂件:田黄石、鸡血石、青铜器、钱币、竹木牙雕等。

 

Solicitation scope:

Porcelain: the five famous kilns of Song Dynasty and the Qing Dynasty are the best;

Jade: high ancient jade, Ming and Qing jade, jadeite, etc;

Calligraphy and painting: ancient calligraphy and painting, modern calligraphy and painting, famous oil painting, ancient books, etc;

Miscellaneous items: Tian Huangshi, chicken blood stone, bronze ware, coins, bamboo and wood ivory carvings, etc.